Depression is a psychoneurotic or psychotic disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal tendencies.
The economic cost of depression in the United States is estimated to be over $30 billion each year
80%-90% of those who seek treatment for depression can feel better within just a few weeks
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, recurrent and devastating mental illness affecting approximately 16% of adults in the United States in their lifetime. Almost 70% of MDD patients fail to remit after initial antidepressant treatment, and the risks of relapse and recurrence dramatically increase with additional courses of treatment.
Major Depressive Disorder & INSCOP
INSCOP (intranasal scopolamine) may provide effective treatment for depression
without the complications of intravenous administration
Conventional antidepressant treatments generally require three to four weeks to become effective. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health report that scopolamine (4 µg/kg intravenously, N=18) was found to reduce symptoms of depression within three days of
the first administration and that scopolamine appeared to produce replicable rapid improvement
Scopolamine temporarily blocks the muscarinic cholinergic receptor, which is thought to be overactive in people suffering from depression.
One-half of participants in the study experienced full symptom remission by the end of the treatment period and remained well during a subsequent placebo period, indicating that the antidepressant effects persisted for at least two weeks in the absence of further treatment.
The investigators concluded that rapid, robust antidepressant responses to the antimuscarinic scopolamine occurred in currently depressed patients who predominantly had poor prognoses and that scopolamine should be further investigated as an alternative treatment for depression.
Major depressive disorder affects approximately 14.8 million American adults and is the leading cause of disability in the U.S.
During their lifetime, 10%-25% of women and 5%-12% of men will become clinically depressed and up to 15% of those who are clinically depressed die by suicide.