Scopolamine has been shown to be an effective pretreatment and/or treatment adjunct to mitigate the toxic sequelae of organophosphate (OP) nerve agent intoxication, as well increasing suvival, and:

  • Preventing or terminating seizures;

  • Reducing morbidity from nerve agent intoxication in a number of animal models;

  • Reducing the dose of atropine required for survival against lethal nerve agent intoxication; and

  • INSCOP (Intranasal Scopolamine) improves survival following OP (sarin) exposure.

  • Sarin gas was released in the Tokyo subway system by the Aum Shinrikyo cult, creating more than 5,000 victims and causing 12 deaths.

  • The same cult had released sarin in an apartment complex in Matsumoto in 1994, killing seven and injuring more than 600 people.

  • Iraq used tabun and sarin in the Iran-Iraq war (1984-1988).

  • Explosive used in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing contained enough cyanide to contaminate the entire building.

  • According to US intelligence estimates, more than 1,400 people, including an estimated 426 children, died in the August 2015 sarin attack in Syria. 

The Need is Great

There are no completely effective and safe compounds approved for use in civilians.

Chemical Defense & INSCOP

Areosolized scopolamine protects against microinstillation

inhalation toxicity to sarin in guinea pigs.

Inhalation is predicted to be the major route of exposure if sarin is used in war or terrorism. Unfortunately, currently available treatments for post-exposure protection against sarin in a mass-casualty scenario are limited. Nasal drug delivery is a potential treatment option for mass casualties. 


Scopolamine, a secretion blocker that effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier, was evaluated for protection against sarin inhalation toxicity in guinea pigs.

Development of New, Effective Chemical Countermeasures for Civilian Applications

  • Improved effectiveness, safety, and duation

  • Theater-approved, age-appropriate, and situation-appropiate

  • Prophylaxis for citizens, warfighters, and first responders

  • Replaces atropine as post-exposure treatment of civilians and first responders

Current Status of INSCOP for Chemical Defense

Defender Pharmaceuticals currently has two “proof-of-concept” studies underway with INSCOP. At the completion of the studies, Defender will continue working with  Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to develop INSCOP for use in chemical defense.


BARDA (Biomedical Advanced Research and Developmental Authority), who fully funds the development of drugs for use in chemical defense (and accepts full risks for FDA labeling), has requested a white paper proposal for the development of INSCOP.

Targeting Chemical Warfare Agent Exposure

High-Level Exposure

  • Seizures

  • Death

 Low-Level Exposure

  • Neuronal Cell Loss

  • Acute and/or Delayed Cognitive/Attention Impairment

  • Peripheral Neuropathy

  • Gulf War Syndrome

Chemical Defense